You might have come across a lot of people who have patches on their skin. Some people know about this skin condition while some don’t. However, this is a medical condition associated with the skin wherein certain areas of your skin depigmentation happens.
This is commonly known as vitiligo.
What Is Vitiligo?
It is circumscribed, acquired, idiopathic progressive hypomelanosis of skin and hair, which is characterized by the absence of melanocytes microscopically. It is known as Bolli in Telugu.
This condition is very common in countries like India and Mexico. In India, this condition is predominant in Gujarat and Rajasthan. This can occur at any age from birth.
This occurs mostly in dark-skinned people. It has also got a hereditary influence of say 20-30% chances.
What Are The Causes?
The causes of vitiligo are:
Nutritional deficiency and emotional stress which causes biochemical changes in the body and that leads to the pre-vitiligo stage.
Drugs and infections cause enzymatic disturbances in the body thus leading to the pre-vitiligo stage.
Focal sepsis and toxins cause autoimmunity and immune dysfunction which leads to vitiligo.
Chemical exposure and oxidative stress can cause epidermal H2O2 accumulation which leads to vitiligo.
There are various types of classification but to our ease, we will stick to one
Based on the distribution of lesions it is divided into two
Localised: focal, segmental and mucosal
Generalised: Acrofacial, Vitiligo Vulgaris, Universalis and mixed
The appearance of patchy discoloration in the form of typical chalky white or milky macules with variables amount of depigmented hair without a change in skin texture.
Development of lesion:
The lesions begin as faint, hazy, localized discolouration of the skin which further turns into whitish discolouration leading to pre-vitiligo or it can undergo spontaneous natural regression. Lesions of the pre-vitiligo undergo chalky/milky white lesion leading to vitiligo.
The vitiligo can become
Static: good progression
Active: multiple lesions with a varying distribution. It has a variable prognosis.
Fleeting: variable prognosis
Vitiligo can be based on the activity of the disease.
Exaggerating factors include trauma, itching, and friction.
Systematic: pernicious anemia, thyroid-hyper and hypo, Addison’s disease, internal malignancies, DH(1-7%), HIV, and ulcerative colitis
Most common sites where it occurs are external surfaces, peri-orificial, and anogenital. If bilateral, lesions are symmetrical.
Poor Prognostic Factors
The poor prognostic factors are lesions such as mucosal lesions on bony prominences, non-fleshy, non-hairy areas, associated with white hair, extensive long-standing diseases, associated ailments, FH positive and old age.
Nutrition: Adequate intake of proteins, B-complex, Vitamin B and minerals such as copper, zinc, and iron.
Avoid physical, chemical, and emotional stress
Avoid contact with phenol compounds
Avoid eating mangoes, cashew, pistachio, red chilies, cherries, berries, and tea.
Systematic medications include oral-immune supplements, levamisole, and corticosteroids.
Therapies include Depigmentation therapy, phototherapy, camouflaging, photochemotherapy: PUVA, NBUVB, etc.. And dead sea therapy.
Surgical treatments include Autologous grafting(tissue and cellular grafts) and Non-grafting(lasers and micro-pigmentation)
For some of you, vitiligo condition does bother about the way they appear, you might feel depressed. But you do not have to worry there is always treatment option. if you want to get it treated you can consult with the doctors at Sankhya hospital to make all your worries into smiles.
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