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All You Need To Know About Vitiligo

All You Need To Know About Vitiligo

You might have come across a lot of people who have patches on their skin. Some people know about this skin condition while some don’t. However, this is a medical condition associated with the skin wherein certain areas of your skin depigmentation happens.

This is commonly known as vitiligo.

Vitiligo Patient

What Is Vitiligo?

It is circumscribed, acquired, idiopathic progressive hypomelanosis of skin and hair, which is characterized by the absence of melanocytes microscopically. It is known as Bolli in Telugu.

This condition is very common in countries like India and Mexico. In India, this condition is predominant in Gujarat and Rajasthan. This can occur at any age from birth.

This occurs mostly in dark-skinned people. It has also got a hereditary influence of say 20-30% chances.

What Are The Causes?

The causes of vitiligo are:

  • Nutritional deficiency and emotional stress which causes biochemical changes in the body and that leads to the pre-vitiligo stage.
  • Drugs and infections cause enzymatic disturbances in the body thus leading to the pre-vitiligo stage.
  • Focal sepsis and toxins cause autoimmunity and immune dysfunction which leads to vitiligo.
  • Chemical exposure and oxidative stress can cause epidermal H2O2 accumulation which leads to vitiligo.

Classification:

There are various types of classification but to our ease, we will stick to one

Based on the distribution of lesions it is divided into two

  • Localised: focal, segmental and mucosal
  • Generalised:  Acrofacial, Vitiligo Vulgaris, Universalis and mixed

Clinical features:

The appearance of patchy discoloration in the form of typical chalky white or milky macules with variables amount of depigmented hair without a change in skin texture.

Development of lesion:

The lesions begin as faint, hazy, localized discolouration of the skin which further turns into whitish discolouration leading to pre-vitiligo or it can undergo spontaneous natural regression. Lesions of the pre-vitiligo undergo chalky/milky white lesion leading to vitiligo.

The vitiligo can become

  • Static: good progression
  • Active: multiple lesions with a varying distribution. It has a variable prognosis.
  • Fleeting: variable prognosis

Vitiligo can be based on the activity of the disease.

Premature Graying Of Hair

Exaggerating factors include trauma, itching, and friction.

Associated Diseases:

  • Skin/cutaneous: canities( premature greying of hair), alopecia areata, alopecia demata, lichen planus, Down’s syndrome, morphea, chronic urticaria, psoriasis, ichthyosis, and scleroderma.
  • Systematic: pernicious anemia, thyroid-hyper and hypo, Addison’s disease, internal malignancies, DH(1-7%), HIV, and ulcerative colitis

Sites Involved:

Most common sites where it occurs are external surfaces, peri-orificial, and anogenital. If bilateral, lesions are symmetrical.

Poor Prognostic Factors

The poor prognostic factors are lesions such as mucosal lesions on bony prominences, non-fleshy, non-hairy areas, associated with white hair, extensive long-standing diseases, associated ailments, FH positive and old age.

The Treatment

  • Nutrition: Adequate intake of proteins, B-complex, Vitamin B and minerals such as copper, zinc, and iron.
  • Avoid physical, chemical, and emotional stress
  • Avoid contact with phenol compounds
  • Avoid eating mangoes, cashew, pistachio, red chilies, cherries, berries, and tea.
  • Photoprotection required

Medications 

  • Topical medications include corticosteroids, calcinium inhibitions, placental extract, BFGF, prostaglandin, pseudocatalase.
  • Systematic medications include oral-immune supplements, levamisole, and corticosteroids.

Therapies include Depigmentation therapy, phototherapy, camouflaging, photochemotherapy: PUVA, NBUVB, etc.. And dead sea therapy.

Surgical treatments include Autologous grafting(tissue and cellular grafts) and Non-grafting(lasers and micro-pigmentation)

For some of you, vitiligo condition does bother about the way they appear, you might feel depressed. But you do not have to worry there is always treatment option. if you want to get it treated you can consult with the doctors at Sankhya hospital to make all your worries into smiles.

ABOUT THE HOSPITAL:

A full fledged, 100-bedded hospital, Sankhya Multispeciality Hospital offers treatment and facilities at par with the best available globally. From 24-hour ambulance service, pharmacy and diagnostic center, to specialized services that extend from Dermatology to Orthopaedics, General Medicine to General Surgery, Gynaecology to Urology, ENT, Plastic Surgery, Laparoscopic SurgeryNeurology, Ophthalmology and more. It is one of the Best ENT Hospital in Hyderabad thanks to the skilled doctors and state-of-the-art technology.

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