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Allergic Rhinitis All You Need To Know

Allergic Rhinitis All You Need To Know

An allergy could be anything that makes you feel discomforted in its presence. For instance some people cannot bear the smell of perfumes, some start sneezing profusely when there’s dust around, and some people have it on an extreme level when the atmosphere is too cold like sitting in an air conditioned room.

This kind of reaction in medical terms in known as allergic rhinitis. The reaction could be sneezing, or coughing, and much more in different degrees. Let’s take a look at it a little more in detail.

Allergic rhinitis is an IgE – mediated immunologic response of nasal mucosa to air-borne allergens. The main reason for this altered response is that allergic people make increased amount of special type of antibody called Immunoglobulin E(IgE). IgE produced as result of repeated allergic stimulation, attaches to the surface of basophils or tissue mast cells and subsequent binding of the allergen triggers a  biochemical reaction, leading to the release of several chemical mediators, which cause a buildup of fluid in the tissues and contraction of smooth muscles.

Causes Of Allergic Rhinitis

Inhalant Allergens Are Often The Cause.

Allergic Rhinitis Causes

 

They include:

    • Pollen from trees
    • Pollen from grasses
    • Mold spores
    • House dust
    • Dust mites
    • Animal dander

Other causes of allergic rhinitis could be attributed to: 

  • Food Allergy
  • Genetic Predisposition

Dust mites and debris from insects are often commonly noticed when they accidentally enter the nose and irritate the respiratory tract. This results in a runny nose, sneezing and can lead to other condition that make you weak. Food allergy refers to certain foods that don’t suit your body composition or certain minerals that don’t suit your system reacting is a negative effect. Genetic predisposition refers to cases in which you might have a family history of allergic reactions, you must inform your doctor if you see any such symptoms of having the same.

Types Of Allergic Rhinitis

  1. Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis – This usually occurs during the spring and fall season. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is typically a response to outdoor allergens such as pollen.
  2. Perennial Allergic Rhinitis – This can occur year round or at any time during the year in response to indoor substances like dust mites and pet dander.

Common Symptoms You Must Look For

  • Sneezing
  • Runny nose
  • Stuffy nose
  • Itchy nose
  • Coughing
  • Itchy eyes
  • Watery eyes
  • Scratchy throat

The Diagnosis:

Detailed history and physical examination are helpful and also give clues to possible allergen.

Investigation:

Skin Prick test – Most common test performed for diagnosis of allergy. In Sankhya hospitals, we have an allergy skin prick test.

Treatment:

1. Avoidance of Allergen – This is most successful if the antigen involved is single.

2. Medical Treatment

(a) Antihistamines – They control rhinorrhoea sneezing & pruritus. They include

  • Levocetirizine
  • Cetirizine
  • Fexofenadine
  • Loratadine

(b) Sympathomimetic drugs or (Decongestants) – Often used to relieve nasal obstruction, can be used over a short period, usually no longer than three days.

(c) Corticosteroids

  • Oral corticosteroids – used for acute episodes & very effective in controlling symptoms
  • Topical steroids – suppress late phase allergic reaction & very effective in control of symptoms.

3. Immunotherapy

Allergic Rhinitis Symptoms

Immunotherapy or hyposensitisation is used when drug treatment doesn’t show any results to control symptoms or produces side effects that are intolerable. Allergen is given with a gradual increase in the doses till the maintenance dose is reached. It suppresses the formation of IgE and also raises the titre of specific IgE antibody. Immunotherapy should be given for at least a year or so, before significant improvement of the symptoms  are noticed.

Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a type of immunotherapy that involves putting drops of allergen extracts under the tongue, which is either swallowed or spat out. SLIT is usually administered daily, or multiple times in a week, over a period of years. SLIT also appears to be an effective treatment for allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and, to a lesser degree, for allergic asthma.

So, if you are looking into getting help for allergic rhinitis,and any allergies that you probably have, you are free to walk in for a consultation at Sankhya hospitals. Get an appointment now and get your allergies walk away!

About The Hospital

A full fledged, 100-bedded hospital, Sankhya Hospital offers multispeciality treatment and facilities at par with the best available globally. From 24-hour ambulance service, pharmacy and diagnostic centre, to specialised services that extend from Dermatology to Orthopaedics, General Medicine to General Surgery, Gynaecology to Urology, ENT, Plastic Surgery, Laparoscopic Surgery, Neurology, Ophthalmology and more.

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