Haemophilia: All You Need To Know About The Disease
April 17, 2018 Posted By: Sankhya Hospitals 1,012 viewsRSS
Haemophilia is a condition where the blood’s ability to clot is severely affected, meaning the patient, in the event of an injury or cut will tend to bleed for longer than others. In this condition, the blood does not have all the components that are known as clotting factors that help stop the bleeding in an average person, but with Haemophilia patients, many of these clotting factors are missing, hence leading to prolonged bleeding.
Haemophilia is a genetic condition that could be inherited by kids from their parents. This condition is usually common among boys. The situation, however, results mostly through inheritance as in most cases one of the parents has an affected gene. There are cases where a baby is born with the problem, despite neither parents having an unaffected gene. But often the evidence is about inheritance.
How does a child inherit Haemophilia? The inheritance process a bit complex one, as it takes more than one factor before a child is affected by the condition. For instance, if the mother has the mutated gene, then there is a one in four chance of either the girl or boy not being affected. A baby boy could be affected with Haemophilia while a girl has the same odds of having an affected X-Chromosome.
In the case of the man being affected, there is no chance of the newborn boy having the problem, as boys only inherit the X-Chromosome from the mother, but there is a chance of a daughter being affected by the issue.
In the case of both parents being affected, there are equal odds of having the baby (boy or girl) with or without haemophilia, where there is a similarly fair chance of the girl with an affected X-Chromosome. In many cases even when both parents aren’t affected by the mutated gene, the newborn, mostly boys are affected with Haemophilia.
Symptoms of Haemophilia The most common symptom of Haemophilia is prolonged bleeding. Usually, patients experience severe bleeding, showing no signs of stopping. Patient’s gums could also bleed, or have visible skin bruises. There could be pain in joints or elbows which usually is caused due to internal bleeding. If these symptoms go out of hand, The child should be taken to hospital for further treatment as leaving it untreated thinking it is part of the disorder; then it could get fatal.
Haemophilia could also cause bleeding inside the skull area
In this case, medical advice has to be sought on an immediate basis. But the symptoms of this problem are different from the usual Haemophilia. Here the symptoms may range from –
A severe Headache
Difficulty in speaking or slurries of speech
Paralysis of facial muscles (partial or complete)
The patient loses coordination or balance
The patient is confused state of mind
Treatment for Haemophilia
Haemophilia as a disorder is divided into two categories ‘A’ & ‘B’. Mainly the difference between the two is determined by the division of clotting factors missing. In any case, patients suffering from both types of Haemophilia have prolonged bleeding than usual.
There are two kinds of treatments for Haemophilia, preventive and on-demand treatment.
Preventive Haemophilia treatments
Haemophilia in most cases is of the severe nature, meaning a substantial involvement of clotting factor medicines through injections. For instance, a child suffering from the disease will be used to those injections at a very young age. As a long-term thing, patients are taught how to inject themselves right from a young age. With technology, there is also a capable kind of treatment where the injections are given into an implantable port, which would direct the injected medicines into the blood veins on its own. Preventative treatments are usually lifelong and needs the patients to follow up regularly with their concerned physicians.
Haemophilia A – For Haemophilia A a specific drug called Octocog Alfa is injected, which helps the patients with the clotting factor VII which is the primary missing component in their bodies. These injections are a common occurrence almost every 48-hours and could cause side effects like soreness, rashy skin etc. at the site of the needle.
Haemophilia B – Similar to the previous type, Haemophilia B involves the medicine known as Nonacog Alfa which provides with the Clotting Factor IX. The injections are not as frequent as in ‘A’ but a patient needs to take them twice a week, the side effects with this include nausea, headaches, altered taste or swelling at the site of the injection.
The on-demand treatment methods are recommended to those with not so severe haemophilia. It is, however, vital treatments continue as doctors recommend this kind to patients with a moderate or mild form of Haemophilia. This treatment is only necessary as an immediate response to prolonged bleeding, which is not as frequent as in the case of a severe patient.
It is only the treatment’s frequency that is the big difference between Preventative and On-demand methods. However, the medicines used in both procedures for ‘A’ & ‘B’ patients are the same in both styles of treatments.
Statistics in India
India is a highly populated country the statistics might represent a more diminutive figure. The stats as per a report in 2014, states that 1 in every 10,000 births is affected by Haemophilia. This might end up looking like India has a decent, if not a large number of people suffering, but in contrast, the global figures state 1 in every 1000 human being suffers from bleeding disorders, which is not only Haemophilia but many other diseases. Haemophilia, however, along with Willebrand disease is one of the most prevalent types of bleeding disorders.
Haemophilia could be a problem for many, right from their birth, but many do not consult a doctor and at times try their form of medication or methods to rid themselves of this disease. Haemophilia is a serious matter, and it is highly recommended a doctor should be consulted no matter how old you are. On this occasion of the World Haemophilia Day, 2018 it is imperative everyone spreads the word and be aware what the diseases are all about.
About Sankhya Hospitals:
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