Prostate Cancer: Causes, Symptoms And Treatments

Prostate Cancer: Causes, Symptoms And Treatments

Despite healthcare making big progress in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, yet, the disease continues to terrorise everybody, because of the possibility of any organ being affected by it.

One of the most commonly diagnosed forms of cancer in men is Prostate Cancer. The prostate (located between the pubic bone and the rectum, beneath the bladder) is one of the most critical parts of the male reproductive system, holding the responsibility of moving sperm, using the liquid the prostate produces.

Prostate cancer has had mixed results till date when it comes to treatments. While many people with prostate cancer have been treated successfully, yet, once it has metastasized or spread to other parts, it becomes tough to treat those cases.

Prostate Cancer, on the whole, is common in men than women, where the disease is a rarity. One study estimates that cancer to the Skene glands accounts only for 0.003% of tumours in the female genital-urinary tract; however, another cancer like that of the urethra is associated with the Skene’s glands.

Causes Of Prostate Cancer

Cause and risk factors of Prostate cancer

Cancer is due to a genetic mutation that grows or multiplies fast and forms a mass known as a tumour. In many cases the genetic variation is inherited from family members, especially one with a history of breast and ovarian cancer; however, most cancer-causing genetic changes are known to occur after birth.

some of the factors that increase or reduce mutation chances so can equally cause cancer while also prevent them.

Age – Prostate cancer is seen in people at an advanced age, which on average is calculated to be 65.

Family history – As mentioned earlier, prostate cancer could be due to genetic inheritance, especially in a family with a history of ovarian and breast cancer. Having immediate family members who have prostate cancer could also become risky.

Race – There is a suggestion from research that men of African descent have almost double the chance of prostate cancer compared to men from other parts of the world. On the other hand, the East-Asian men have the lowest risk. On the other side, geographically, Prostate cancer is rare in Asia, Africa and South America.

Diet – Consuming High fats and red meats as well as a lack of vegetables, fibres and fruits all increase the risk of prostate cancer.

Physical activity – Many men with increasing weight and physical inactivity have been prone to prostate cancer.

Smoking – Like the root cause of many other problems, smoking is also associated with causing prostate cancer.

Symptoms Of Prostate Cancer

What are the possible symptoms of prostate cancer?

The symptoms start showing up once a tumour is formed and slowly begins to spread around other parts of the body from the prostate. A tumour is also known to interfere with nerves which help in the erection of the penis, thus also causing erectile dysfunction.

Some of the symptoms include – 

  • A burning sensation or pain while urinating.
  • Frequent urination
  • Ejaculation pain
  • Blood in urine or semen
  • Experiencing pain when pressing on the spine or pelvis.
  • Stiffness or pain on the lower back, hips and upper thighs.

Before & After Prostate Cancer Treatment

Diagnosis and Treatment

Doctors for diagnosing prostate cancer will first and foremost check on the PSA levels in the blood. PSA stands for Prostate-specific antigen, and the PSA test is pretty standard in determining a cancer problem. Ideally, a man suffering from prostate cancer will have high PSA, although there are many other, non-cancerous conditions which have elevated PSA levels. On the other hand, a low level of PSA in the blood is considered to be a proper sign of prostate cancer.

Another option is the digital rectal exam. During this test, doctors will feel the prostate using a gloved finger. They could feel a lump or understand if the PSA levels are high, after which they will take sample tissues to then conduct a biopsy. Further on a biopsy sample of the lymph nodes will also be taken to understand if cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Once found, a Urologist will determine the stage/grade and size of a tumour. Further on appropriate therapy will be suggested by the urologist.

Some of the treatment options for Prostate options widely used are – 

  • Radiation Therapy
  • Surgical method
  • Removal of prostate
  • Hormonal therapy


It will be a urologist or the concerned doctor, who after determining the size, grade or stage of a tumour will suggest appropriate treatment. Early signs are possible, but the symptoms mentioned above are the main signs that one might be suffering from prostate cancer. This is a lethal problem and could have severe consequences if not treated promptly and adequately.

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